怎麼樣判斷有「跳躍概念」出現呢?
首先,你必須抓到結論句

(相信結論句怎麼抓應該是眾版友必備能力)
結論句出現premise中沒有提到的新概念,即為有可能出現跳躍概念的地方。

for example:
他家很有錢,所以他一定不會貪汙。

Premise:D的家裡很有錢
Conclusion:D一定不會貪汙

「貪汙」是Premise中沒有提到過,而結論才出現的概念,所以結論要成立
必須要把「貪汙」跟「家裡有錢」連結在一起
故assumption:很有錢的人一定不會貪汙

再舉一例:

for example:
Premise:P是醫生
Conclusion:P不適合當市長

「市長」是premise沒提到,在結論才出現的概念,那就要去把
「市長」跟premise已有的概念「醫生」結合在一起。

故assumption:作醫生的人不適合當市長。

補充以OG2016新題舉例:
41. Although there is no record of poet Edmund Spenser’s parentage, we do know that as a youth Spenser attended the Merchant Tailors’ School in London for a period between 1560 and 1570. Records from this time indicate that the Merchant Tailors’ Guild then had only three members named Spenser: Robert Spenser, listed as a gentleman; Nicholas Spenser, elected the Guild’s Warden in 1568; and John Spenser, listed as a “journeyman cloth-maker.” Of these, the last was likely the least affluent of the three—and most likely Edmund’s father, since school accounting records list Edmund as a scholar who attended the school at a reduced fee.

題目大意:

誰是Edmund Spenser的老爸?

premise 1. 我們能確定的是他老爸在1560-1570年間有入裁縫師學校
去調資料,發現當時學校記錄裡有三個Spenser:
1. Robert Spenser 上流紳士
2. Nicholas Spenser 學院主任
3. John Spenser 做衣服的的零工

(we do know that as a youth Spenser attended the Merchant Tailors’ School in London for a period between 1560 and 1570. Records from this time indicate that the Merchant Tailors’ Guild then had only three members named Spenser: Robert Spenser, listed as a gentleman; Nicholas Spenser, elected the Guild’s Warden in 1568; and John Spenser, listed as a “journeyman cloth-maker.”)

premise 2. Edmund上學的時候是繳減免過的學費。
(since school accounting records list Edmund as a scholar who attended the school at a reduced fee.)

結論:最不有錢的那個John Spenser一定是他老爸
( Of these, the last was likely the least affluent of the three—and most likely Edmund’s father,)

有沒有發現?
結論突然跳出一個「有沒有錢」(affluent)的新概念,
在前面的premise 1 沒有提到(只有講職業),
premise 2也沒有提到(只有講reduced fee)

判斷出結論出現前面premise沒有提到的新概念之後,
答案就是往斷橋的方向走,試圖建立 「有沒有錢」與「減免學費」之間的關係:

(E) The Merchant Tailors’ School did not reduce its fees for the children
of the more affluent Guild members.
有錢的人不會被減免學費。

此即為正確答案

By |2019-10-08T13:30:42+08:0022 7 月, 2015|AMATEUR, CRITICAL REASONING|2 Comments