最不專業的GMAT教學分享平台

SC進階:語意邏輯關係高頻測驗方向

繼上一次幫杜吐先生平反之後,Dustin每天晚上都被亡友托夢,各種修飾結構紛至沓來,想要請Dustin這個「文權律師」幫他們重啟審判,洗刷冤獄。因此,這段時間Dustin默默在收集證據,勿縱勿濫,最後終於發現GMAT是怎麼樣幫他們定「語意關係錯誤」這種罪名的(話說OG你如果解釋寫用心一點,不就好了嗎……)。

以下,是六種最常見的兩句關係錯誤的選項設計模式。

1. 改變連接詞,用不適當的連接詞連接兩句。
2. 拿掉連接詞,讓原本應有的關係消失。
3. 將子句中的核心結構調換(但連接詞不變),讓原本的語意關係消失。
4. 改變時態,讓時間順序不符合兩具邏輯關係的要求。
5. 改成具多種含義的連接詞或修飾語,導致相對歧義。
6. Redundancy。

接下來,是三種高危險的錯誤選項犯案現場。

一、時間(WHEN)

1. when最基本的意思是表「當…(時間)」。如果讀得出來兩件事情的關係不只是時間一樣,而是有其他邏輯關係時,這時when就有語意模糊的問題。

The application of a new method for analyzing the chemistry of tooth enamel allows scientists to examine molars of prehuman ancestors and determining that their diets were more varied than had been supposed.

(C) When they applied a new method for analyzing the chemistry of tooth enamel, scientists examined molars of prehuman ancestors, determining
(E) Applying a new method for analyzing the chemistry of tooth enamel, scientists have examined molars of prehuman ancestors and determined

兩件事讀得出來是有因果關係(「用方法」「檢查/得出結論」),這時用(E)的句首分詞結構會比用(C)單純表時間的when更適合。
 

2. when與其他表兩件事關係的內容連用,導致兩件事關係有歧義。

Compared to those who do not, running three days a week saves an average of 14.1 percent on health-care costs each year in the United States.

(B) Compared with nonrunners, people who run three days a week save
(D) When compared with those who do not, people running three days a week save

所以(D)到底在強調同一時間,還是在強調比較?這時(B)相較之下語意就更單一明確。

3. 故意把動詞時態改掉,讓兩件事情的時態不一致,與when表同一時間的語意產生矛盾不合理。

When drafting the Declaration of Sentiments that was adopted at the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention in 1848, included in it by the author, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was a call for female enfranchisement.

(C) When the Declaration of Sentiments drafted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton was adopted at the Seneca Falls Women’s Convention in 1848, a call for female enfranchisement had been included in it.
(E) When Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments that was adopted at the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention in 1848, she included in it a call for female enfranchisement.

(C) 過去完成式had been included在先,過去簡單式was adopted在後,但是when又表「同一時間」,於是形成了語義矛盾。

二、因果

1. 題目設計者會把其中一個子句的核心結構調換,讓兩個字句失去原本的因果關係。

Books in European libraries last longer than books in libraries in the United States because, although the climate in Europe is fairly humid, libraries there are not subjected to the extremes of temperature and humidity that damage collections in the United States.

(A) because, although the climate in Europe is fairly humid, libraries there are not subjected to the extremes of temperature and humidity that
(E) because the climate in Europe is fairly humid, but libraries there are not subjected to the extremities of temperature and humidity such as those that

(A)與(E)的核心結構(子句內的強調重點)分別是「歐洲(there)的圖書館不會遇到極端溫濕度的侵襲」跟「歐洲氣候濕潤」。而為畫線部分的結果則是「歐洲圖書館的書保存比較久」。到底是「沒有極端溫濕度所以保存比較久」呢?還是「氣候濕潤所以保存比較久」?很顯然前者才有因果關係,而(E)選項則是將子句內核心結構調換,讓兩句的因果關係消失,這時because就無法合理連接兩句。
 

2. 設計because(表因果)與by Ving / to V(表手段/目的)成為相對選項。考是否能辨別「手段目的」跟「因果關係」。這時要看句意是否有表意圖。

In recent years cattle breeders have increasingly used crossbreeding, in part that their steers should acquire certain characteristics and partly because crossbreeding is said to provide hybrid vigor.

(D) partly because certain characteristics should be acquired by their steers
(E) partly to acquire certain characteristics in their steers 

前面講的是「養殖業逐漸普及交互配種」後面講的是「讓後代取得某些特質」,這是一個事實必然,別無選擇不得不做(用should)的因果呢?還是養殖業者可以按照自己的意圖自由選擇的option?很明顯,這裡應該是『意圖』要取得某些特質,所以用to會比單純表因果,更能彰顯手段目的關係。
 

3. 用分詞表因果的設計錯誤模式:故意把時態改掉,讓兩件事情的時態倒反,產生語義矛盾。

It was only after Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post in 1963 that it moved into the first rank of American newspapers, and it was under her command that the paper won high praise for its unrelenting reporting of the Watergate scandal.

(A) It was only after Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post in 1963 that it moved into the first rank of American newspapers, and it was under her command that the paper won high praise

(C) Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post in 1963, and only after that did it move into the first rank of American newspapers, having won high praise under her command

句尾的,Ving代表的是補充說明或者伴隨結果,邏輯上無論如何不能在主句之前發生。這裡的(C)選項位在句尾,卻使用完成式對應前面主句的簡單式,代表時間在之前發生。這時會跟句尾,Ving表「同一時間的細節補充說明」或「發生在之後的伴隨結果」產生矛盾。

4. Redundancy

Hurricanes at first begin traveling from east to west, because that direction is the way the prevailing winds in the tropics blow, but they then veer off toward higher latitudes, in many cases changing direction toward the east before dissipating over the colder, more northerly waters or over land.

(B) At first, hurricanes travel from east to west, because that is the direction of the prevailing winds in the tropics, but
(D) Because hurricanes at first travel from east to west, since it is the direction of the prevailing winds in the tropics,

這就不解釋了,redundancy只有在「不知道他會考的時候」才會忽略。

大家看到因果關係就要多注意。

三、對比

由於有一題非常經典,幾乎設計了大部分在對比上會出的錯誤。
因此接下來1. 到 3. 統一用此題解釋。
 

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.
(B) Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America.
(C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America.
(D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America.
(E) While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932.

1. 改變句子核心結構,讓對比關係消失。

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(B) Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America.

此題的B選項將原本作為同位語修飾成份的「spear points…」改成主要句子的核心結構,
但這樣會變成「儘管以第一個被發現的地方命名,Clovis Points是一種…..的點」,很明顯失去了原本「儘管以第一個被發現的地方被命名,但Clovis Points到處都有」的對比意思。

2. 去掉對比連接詞,但兩句語意上應該要有對比關係。

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America.

讀得出來「以第一個被發現的地方命名」跟「事實上到處都有」是對比關係的時候,出題者就會故意把對比連接詞拿掉,讓兩句語意無法清楚搭配。

3. Redundancy

Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America.

跟前面一樣,不贅述。看到對比關係時多注意即可。
 

4. 設計相對選項搭配while,注意歧義。

Unlike a female grizzly bear in the Rockies, which typically occupies a range of 50 to 300 square miles, a male’s range will cover 200 to 500 and occasionally as many as 600.

(C) While the typical range of a female grizzly bear in the Rockies is 50 to 300 square miles, with males, their range can cover 200 to 500 square miles and occasionally so
(D) Whereas a female grizzly bear in the Rockies typically occupies a range of 50 to 300 square miles, a male will cover 200 to 500 and occasionally as

while由於有兩種可能的用法「表同一時間(類似when)」跟「表對比(類似although)」,因此當讀得出兩句關係表對比(像這裡的雄性動物跟雌性動物的活動範圍大小)時,用單一明確表對比的連接詞,像這裡(D)的whereas,會比(B)選項的while更清晰,更不會有歧義。
 
但是要記住:歧義不是絕對錯誤,正確選項仍然有接受歧義的可能,前提是別的選項文法錯誤語意不合理(請參考「考點層級」的教學)。
 

5. 設計相對選項搭配with,with無法代表對比關係。

Despite there being no fundamental difference in shipbuilding traditions in Viking-Age Scandinavia from the ones in other parts of Northern Europe, archaeological evidence shows that Viking ships were lighter, slimmer, faster, and thus probably more seaworthy than the heavier vessels used by the English at that time.

(C) With shipbuilding traditions in Viking-Age Scandinavia not fundamentally different from those

(E) Although shipbuilding traditions in Viking-Age Scandinavia were not fundamentally different from those

with獨立主格結構表「伴隨發生」,沒有對比的含義。GMAT常常設計用with銜接原有對比關係的兩件事情。像這裡「造船傳統沒有差別」跟「維京人的船艦比英國人船艦更強」語意明顯有對比,就不應該用像(B)選項用with銜接,而(E)選項則是正確地使用了although表對比。
 

c.f. 加碼補充with獨立主格結構:語意歧義不明確。

At the end of 2001, motion picture industry representatives said that there were about a million copies of Hollywood movies available online and expected piracy to increase with high-speed Internet connections that become more widely available.

(A) online and expected piracy to increase with high-speed Internet connections that become more widely available

(E) online, and that they expected piracy to increase as high-speed Internet connections became more widely available 

這裡既然講到with獨立主格結構,就要補充一個with常見的錯誤選項設計手法。由於with的邏輯關係不明確(可以是同一時間/因果/條件…)。因此,如果有其他相對選項能夠更明確地表達兩句關係,則with獨立主格結構會有語意不清的歧義。像這裡用(E)選項的as+子句表「隨著…(背景的改變成為遠因)」就會比(A)選項中語意不明的with獨立結構更清晰。
 
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About Dustin

最不專業的GMAT教學分享平台。
最討厭商學院卻考了GMAT。
GMAT考生打造的輔助學習網站。
(那個,拜託,不要叫我老師或顧問。)

– 一戰自修760 AWA 5.5
– A2GMAT團隊共同開發者&Verbal教學者(2012 -)
– 要速成請找補習班,要紮實可以進來逛逛。
2019-11-03T23:32:50+08:00